Co-NTA Agarose


Agarose Guide
The His tag is the most widely used affinity tag due to its small size, low immunogenicity, and versatility under native or denaturing conditions, as well as in presence of detergents and many other additives. In addition to the widely used Ni-NTA Agarose, Cube Biotech offers high-performance PureCube Co-NTA Agarose, based on BioWorks Workbeads with an average bead size of 40 µm, for purification of his-tagged proteins. Specificity of this transition metal for histidine stretches is typically higher than that of nickel (see Fig. 1). PureCube Co-NTA Agarose is provided as a 50% suspension, and also available as prepacked cartridge. For purification of his-tagged proteins from cell culture supernatants or for pull-down experiments, we recommend PureCube Co-NTA MagBeads. To detect His-tagged proteins in Western Blot experiments, Cube Biotech offers the highly specific PentaHis antibody.

Why PureCube Co-NTA Agarose?

  • Optimal balance of yield and purity
  • Superior DTT and EDTA stability
  • Can be regenerated for reuse
  • Also available loaded with Ni, Cu, Zn, and other metals

Co-NTA Agarose from Cube Biotech was successfully used in the following publications:

 ProteinYearAuthor
eGFP 2015 Li Y., Lui Y., Gao T., Zhang B., Song Y., Terrell J-L., Barber N., Bentley W-E., Takeuchi I., Payne G-F., Wang Q.1
flavin-dependent tryptophan 6-halogenase Thal 2018  Moritzer A.-C., Minges H., Prior T., Frese M., Seewald N., Niemann H.H.13
HrpII 2017  Bauer W.S., Richardson K.A., Adams N.M., Ricks K.M., Gasperino D.J., Ghionea S.J., Rosen M., Nichols K.P., Weigl B.H., Haselton F.R., Wright D.W., 14

Different metal ions confer different binding affinity and specificity

metal_ions_protein;purification;affinity
Fig. 1: Affinity and specificity of metal ions commonly used for IMAC. Loading an IMAC resin with different metal ions can adjust the affinity and specificity to optimize the purity and yield of a purified protein.
Loading different metal ions to a resin results in differing affinity and specificity for a his-tagged protein. Generally, cobalt exhibits the higest binding specificity of commonly used IMAC metal ions, leading to relatively low yields but high purity. Copper, at the other end of the spectrum, has a high affinity leading to high yields but unspecific binding. In searching for the optimal resin to purify a protein, it is recommended to explore different chelating ligands (IDA or NTA) and different metal ions.

Features

Usage Specific binding and purification of 6x his-tagged proteins
Specifity Affinity to His-tagged proteins
Binding capacity >30 mg/mL
Chelator stability Stable in buffer containing 10 mM DTT and 1 mM EDTA
Filling quantity Delivered as a 50 % suspension
Bead size 40 μm
Bead Ligand Co-NTA
Required equipment
 
  • Lysis Buffer
  • Wash Buffer
  • Elution Buffer
  • Ice bath
  • Refrigerated centrifuge for 50 mL tube (min 10,000 x g)
  • 50 mL centrifuge tube
  • Micropipettor and Micropipetting tips
  • Disposable gravity flow columns with capped bottom outlet, 2 ml
  •  pH meter
  • End-over-end shaker
  • SDS-PAGE buffers, reagents and equipment Optional: Western Blot reagents and equipment

Applications

All protocols and buffer compositions are also avaible as PDF-Files on the Protocols & Datasheets page.
   
A.Protocol for purification under native conditions:
 
 
  1. Thaw the E. coli cell pellets corresponding to 200 mL bacterial culture on ice for 15 min. Optional: Freezing the cell pellet at -20 °C for 30 min prior to incubation at room temperature improves lysis by lysozyme.
  2. Resuspend the cell pellet in 10 mL Native Lysis Buffer supplemented with 1 mg/mL lysozyme, and pour it into a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube.
  3. If the solution is very viscous, add 3 units Benzonase® per mL E.coli culture volume to the lysis buffer. Alternatively or additionally, sonicate the lysate to improve cell disruption.
  4. Incubate on an end-over-end shaker at room temperature for 30 min, or at 4 °C for 1 h, depending on the temperature stability of the protein.
  5. Centrifuge the lysate for 30 min at 10,000 x g and 2-8 °C. Carefully collect the supernatant without touching the pellet. Note: The supernatant contains the cleared lysate fraction. We recommend to take aliquots of all fractions for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  6. Resuspend the PureCube Co-NTA Agarose by inverting the bottle until the suspension is homogeneous. Transfer 1 mL of the 50 % suspension (corresponding to 500 μL bed volume) to a 15 mL conical centrifuge tube. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove the supernatant. Tip: Alternatively, resin equilibration can be performed directly in the disposable gravity flow column.
  7. Add 2.5 mL Native Lysis Buffer and gently resuspend the slurry to equilibrate the resin. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove 2 mL supernatant.
  8. Add 10 mL cleared lysate to the equilibrated PureCube Co-NTA Agarose resin and incubate at 4 °C for 1 h on an end-over-end shaker. Tip: Alternatively, batch binding can be performed directly in a gravity flow column with closed bottom and top outlets.
  9. Transfer the binding suspension to a disposable gravity flow column with a capped bottom outlet. Use Lysis Buffer to rinse the centrifuge tube and remove resin adhered to the wall.
  10. Remove the bottom cap of the column and collect the flow-through.
  11. Wash the column with 5 mL Native Wash Buffer. Repeat the washing step at least 3 times.
  12. Elute the His-tagged protein 5 times using 0.5 mL Native Elution Buffer. Collect each eluate in a separate tube and determine the protein concentration of each fraction. Optional: Incubate the resin for 15 min in Elution Buffer before collecting the eluate to increase protein yields.
  13. Analyze all fractions by SDS-PAGE. Note: Do not boil membrane proteins. Instead, incubate samples at 46 °C for 30 min in preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  14. Optional: Perform Western Blot experiment using PentaHis Antibody.
 B.Protocol for purification under denaturing conditions:
 
 
  1. Thaw the E. coli cell pellet on ice.
  2. Resuspend the cell pellet in 10 mL Denaturing Lysis Buffer. Optional: Benzonase® can be added to the lysate to reduce viscosity caused by nucleic acids (3 U/mL bacterial culture). Nucleic acids can also be sheared by passing the lysate 10 times through a fine-gauge needle.
  3. Incubate at room temperature for 30 min on an end-over-end shaker.
  4. Centrifuge the lysate for 30 min at room temperature and 10,000 x g. Collect the supernatant. Note: The supernatant contains the cleared lysate fraction. We recommend to take aliquots of all fractions for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  5. Resuspend the PureCube Co-NTA Agarose by inverting the bottle until the suspension is homogeneous. Transfer 1 mL of the 50% suspension (corresponding to 0.5 mL bed volume) into a 15 mL conical centrifuge tube. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove the supernatant.
  6. Add the cleared lysate to the resin and incubate the mixture for 1 h at room temperature on an end-over-end shaker. Tip: Alternatively, batch binding can be done directly in a gravity flow column with closed top and bottom outlet.
  7. Transfer the binding suspension to a disposable gravity flow column with a capped bottom outlet. Use Lysis Buffer to rinse the centrifuge tube and remove resin adhered to the wall.
  8. Remove the bottom cap of the column and collect the flow-through.
  9. Wash the column with 5 mL Denaturing Wash Buffer. Repeat the washing step at least 3 times.
  10. Elute the His-tagged protein 5 times using 0.5 mL Denaturing Elution Buffer. Collect each eluate in a separate tube and determine the protein concentration of each fraction. Tip: If the target protein is acid-labile, elution can be performed with 250-500 mM imidazole.
  11. Analyze all fractions by SDS-PAGE. Note: Do not boil membrane proteins. Instead, incubate samples at 46˚C for 30 min in preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  12. Optional: Perform Western Blot experiment using PentaHis Antibody.
 C.Wash protocol - Recommended after each use
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA matrix. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the water volume to drip out of the column. Note: You can allow the fluid to drip through the column by gravity, or use a pressure bulb to gently force the fluid through the matrix. Ensure not to dry out the matrix.
  2. . Add 10 bv Wash Buffer to the column and allow the volume to completely flow through the matrix.
  3. Rinse the column again with 10 bv dd water.
  4. Add 10 bv 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.
 D.Wash & Regeneration protocol without the use of DTT (recommended after each run, latest after 5 runs)
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA matrix. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  2. Note: For removal of contaminations with very hydrophobic proteins or lipids, or precipitated proteins, incubate the matrix with one of the following chemicals for 1-2 h: 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 8 M urea, 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, 30% acetonitrile, or 1 M NaOH. Thoroughly wash with distilled water.
  3. Add 10 bv 100 mM EDTA to the column and allow the entire volume to flow through the matrix.
  4. Rinse the column again with 10 bv dd water
  5. Add 10 bv Wash Buffer to the column and allow the entire volume to flow through the matrix.
  6. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water
  7. Add 10 bv 10m M CoSO4 to recharge the matrix. Allow the volume to drip through the column by gravity
  8. Rinse the column with 5 bv dd water.
  9. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  10. Wash with 5 bv 20 mM Tris pH 8.0.
  11. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  12. Add 10 bv of 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.
 E.Wash & Regeneration protocol after the use of DTT (Neccessary after each run!)
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA resin. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  2. Briefly wash the resin with 10 bv 1–3% (v/v) HCl. Minimize the exposure time of the resin to HCl. Note: The concentration of HCl depends on the extent to which the resin is reduced. For example, 1% HCl was sufficient to strip Co-NTA resin exposed to 1 mM DTT, 2% HCl for 5 mM DTT, and 3% for 10 mM DTT.
  3. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water
  4. If the resin is not completely white, repeat steps 2 and 3. Otherwise, continue to step 4.
  5. Add 10 bv Wash Buffer and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  6. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water.
  7. Add 10 bv 10 mM CoSO4 to recharge the resin. Allow the volume to drip through the column by gravity.
  8. Rinse the column with 5 bv dd water
  9. Add 5 bv of Regeneration Buffer and incubate the matrix for 15 min at room temperature.
  10. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  11. Wash with 5 bv 20 mM Tris pH 8.0. Note: The extensive wash steps remove free nickel ions from the column, enhancing performance of the material in subsequent purifications, especially in presence of DTT.
  12. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each
  13. . Add 10 bv 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.

References

1. Li, Y. et al. Self-assembly with orthogonal imposed stimuli to impart structure and confer magnetic function to electrodeposited hydrogel. Applied Materials & Interfaces, Published April 29, 2015
2. Moritzer, Ann-Christin et al. (2018). Structure-based switch of regioselectivity in the flavin-dependent tryptophan 6-halogenase Thal. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294. jbc.RA118.005393. 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005393.
3. Bauer, Westley S et al. “Rapid concentration and elution of malarial antigen histidine-rich protein II using solid phase Zn(II) resin in a simple flow-through pipette tip format.” Biomicrofluidics vol. 11,3 034115. 2 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1063/1.4984788
Agarose Guide
The His tag is the most widely used affinity tag due to its small size, low immunogenicity, and versatility under native or denaturing conditions, as well as in presence of detergents and many other additives. In addition to the widely used Ni-NTA Agarose, Cube Biotech offers high-performance PureCube Co-NTA Agarose, based on BioWorks Workbeads with an average bead size of 40 µm, for purification of his-tagged proteins. Specificity of this transition metal for histidine stretches is typically higher than that of nickel (see Fig. 1). PureCube Co-NTA Agarose is provided as a 50% suspension, and also available as prepacked cartridge. For purification of his-tagged proteins from cell culture supernatants or for pull-down experiments, we recommend PureCube Co-NTA MagBeads. To detect His-tagged proteins in Western Blot experiments, Cube Biotech offers the highly specific PentaHis antibody.

Why PureCube Co-NTA Agarose?

  • Optimal balance of yield and purity
  • Superior DTT and EDTA stability
  • Can be regenerated for reuse
  • Also available loaded with Ni, Cu, Zn, and other metals

Co-NTA Agarose from Cube Biotech was successfully used in the following publications:

 ProteinYearAuthor
eGFP 2015 Li Y., Lui Y., Gao T., Zhang B., Song Y., Terrell J-L., Barber N., Bentley W-E., Takeuchi I., Payne G-F., Wang Q.1
flavin-dependent tryptophan 6-halogenase Thal 2018  Moritzer A.-C., Minges H., Prior T., Frese M., Seewald N., Niemann H.H.13
HrpII 2017  Bauer W.S., Richardson K.A., Adams N.M., Ricks K.M., Gasperino D.J., Ghionea S.J., Rosen M., Nichols K.P., Weigl B.H., Haselton F.R., Wright D.W., 14

Different metal ions confer different binding affinity and specificity

metal_ions_protein;purification;affinity
Fig. 1: Affinity and specificity of metal ions commonly used for IMAC. Loading an IMAC resin with different metal ions can adjust the affinity and specificity to optimize the purity and yield of a purified protein.
Loading different metal ions to a resin results in differing affinity and specificity for a his-tagged protein. Generally, cobalt exhibits the higest binding specificity of commonly used IMAC metal ions, leading to relatively low yields but high purity. Copper, at the other end of the spectrum, has a high affinity leading to high yields but unspecific binding. In searching for the optimal resin to purify a protein, it is recommended to explore different chelating ligands (IDA or NTA) and different metal ions.

Features

Usage Specific binding and purification of 6x his-tagged proteins
Specifity Affinity to His-tagged proteins
Binding capacity >30 mg/mL
Chelator stability Stable in buffer containing 10 mM DTT and 1 mM EDTA
Filling quantity Delivered as a 50 % suspension
Bead size 40 μm
Bead Ligand Co-NTA
Required equipment
 
  • Lysis Buffer
  • Wash Buffer
  • Elution Buffer
  • Ice bath
  • Refrigerated centrifuge for 50 mL tube (min 10,000 x g)
  • 50 mL centrifuge tube
  • Micropipettor and Micropipetting tips
  • Disposable gravity flow columns with capped bottom outlet, 2 ml
  •  pH meter
  • End-over-end shaker
  • SDS-PAGE buffers, reagents and equipment Optional: Western Blot reagents and equipment

Applications

All protocols and buffer compositions are also avaible as PDF-Files on the Protocols & Datasheets page.
   
A.Protocol for purification under native conditions:
 
 
  1. Thaw the E. coli cell pellets corresponding to 200 mL bacterial culture on ice for 15 min. Optional: Freezing the cell pellet at -20 °C for 30 min prior to incubation at room temperature improves lysis by lysozyme.
  2. Resuspend the cell pellet in 10 mL Native Lysis Buffer supplemented with 1 mg/mL lysozyme, and pour it into a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube.
  3. If the solution is very viscous, add 3 units Benzonase® per mL E.coli culture volume to the lysis buffer. Alternatively or additionally, sonicate the lysate to improve cell disruption.
  4. Incubate on an end-over-end shaker at room temperature for 30 min, or at 4 °C for 1 h, depending on the temperature stability of the protein.
  5. Centrifuge the lysate for 30 min at 10,000 x g and 2-8 °C. Carefully collect the supernatant without touching the pellet. Note: The supernatant contains the cleared lysate fraction. We recommend to take aliquots of all fractions for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  6. Resuspend the PureCube Co-NTA Agarose by inverting the bottle until the suspension is homogeneous. Transfer 1 mL of the 50 % suspension (corresponding to 500 μL bed volume) to a 15 mL conical centrifuge tube. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove the supernatant. Tip: Alternatively, resin equilibration can be performed directly in the disposable gravity flow column.
  7. Add 2.5 mL Native Lysis Buffer and gently resuspend the slurry to equilibrate the resin. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove 2 mL supernatant.
  8. Add 10 mL cleared lysate to the equilibrated PureCube Co-NTA Agarose resin and incubate at 4 °C for 1 h on an end-over-end shaker. Tip: Alternatively, batch binding can be performed directly in a gravity flow column with closed bottom and top outlets.
  9. Transfer the binding suspension to a disposable gravity flow column with a capped bottom outlet. Use Lysis Buffer to rinse the centrifuge tube and remove resin adhered to the wall.
  10. Remove the bottom cap of the column and collect the flow-through.
  11. Wash the column with 5 mL Native Wash Buffer. Repeat the washing step at least 3 times.
  12. Elute the His-tagged protein 5 times using 0.5 mL Native Elution Buffer. Collect each eluate in a separate tube and determine the protein concentration of each fraction. Optional: Incubate the resin for 15 min in Elution Buffer before collecting the eluate to increase protein yields.
  13. Analyze all fractions by SDS-PAGE. Note: Do not boil membrane proteins. Instead, incubate samples at 46 °C for 30 min in preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  14. Optional: Perform Western Blot experiment using PentaHis Antibody.
 B.Protocol for purification under denaturing conditions:
 
 
  1. Thaw the E. coli cell pellet on ice.
  2. Resuspend the cell pellet in 10 mL Denaturing Lysis Buffer. Optional: Benzonase® can be added to the lysate to reduce viscosity caused by nucleic acids (3 U/mL bacterial culture). Nucleic acids can also be sheared by passing the lysate 10 times through a fine-gauge needle.
  3. Incubate at room temperature for 30 min on an end-over-end shaker.
  4. Centrifuge the lysate for 30 min at room temperature and 10,000 x g. Collect the supernatant. Note: The supernatant contains the cleared lysate fraction. We recommend to take aliquots of all fractions for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  5. Resuspend the PureCube Co-NTA Agarose by inverting the bottle until the suspension is homogeneous. Transfer 1 mL of the 50% suspension (corresponding to 0.5 mL bed volume) into a 15 mL conical centrifuge tube. Allow the resin to settle by gravity and remove the supernatant.
  6. Add the cleared lysate to the resin and incubate the mixture for 1 h at room temperature on an end-over-end shaker. Tip: Alternatively, batch binding can be done directly in a gravity flow column with closed top and bottom outlet.
  7. Transfer the binding suspension to a disposable gravity flow column with a capped bottom outlet. Use Lysis Buffer to rinse the centrifuge tube and remove resin adhered to the wall.
  8. Remove the bottom cap of the column and collect the flow-through.
  9. Wash the column with 5 mL Denaturing Wash Buffer. Repeat the washing step at least 3 times.
  10. Elute the His-tagged protein 5 times using 0.5 mL Denaturing Elution Buffer. Collect each eluate in a separate tube and determine the protein concentration of each fraction. Tip: If the target protein is acid-labile, elution can be performed with 250-500 mM imidazole.
  11. Analyze all fractions by SDS-PAGE. Note: Do not boil membrane proteins. Instead, incubate samples at 46˚C for 30 min in preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis.
  12. Optional: Perform Western Blot experiment using PentaHis Antibody.
 C.Wash protocol - Recommended after each use
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA matrix. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the water volume to drip out of the column. Note: You can allow the fluid to drip through the column by gravity, or use a pressure bulb to gently force the fluid through the matrix. Ensure not to dry out the matrix.
  2. . Add 10 bv Wash Buffer to the column and allow the volume to completely flow through the matrix.
  3. Rinse the column again with 10 bv dd water.
  4. Add 10 bv 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.
 D.Wash & Regeneration protocol without the use of DTT (recommended after each run, latest after 5 runs)
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA matrix. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  2. Note: For removal of contaminations with very hydrophobic proteins or lipids, or precipitated proteins, incubate the matrix with one of the following chemicals for 1-2 h: 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 8 M urea, 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, 30% acetonitrile, or 1 M NaOH. Thoroughly wash with distilled water.
  3. Add 10 bv 100 mM EDTA to the column and allow the entire volume to flow through the matrix.
  4. Rinse the column again with 10 bv dd water
  5. Add 10 bv Wash Buffer to the column and allow the entire volume to flow through the matrix.
  6. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water
  7. Add 10 bv 10m M CoSO4 to recharge the matrix. Allow the volume to drip through the column by gravity
  8. Rinse the column with 5 bv dd water.
  9. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  10. Wash with 5 bv 20 mM Tris pH 8.0.
  11. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  12. Add 10 bv of 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.
 E.Wash & Regeneration protocol after the use of DTT (Neccessary after each run!)
 
 
Note: "bv" refers to column bed volume, i.e., 10 bv calls for 10 mL of buffer for a 1 mL column bed volume.
  1. Remove the majority of the fluid in the column containing the Co-NTA resin. Add 10 bv dd water and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  2. Briefly wash the resin with 10 bv 1–3% (v/v) HCl. Minimize the exposure time of the resin to HCl. Note: The concentration of HCl depends on the extent to which the resin is reduced. For example, 1% HCl was sufficient to strip Co-NTA resin exposed to 1 mM DTT, 2% HCl for 5 mM DTT, and 3% for 10 mM DTT.
  3. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water
  4. If the resin is not completely white, repeat steps 2 and 3. Otherwise, continue to step 4.
  5. Add 10 bv Wash Buffer and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column.
  6. Rinse the column with 10 bv dd water.
  7. Add 10 bv 10 mM CoSO4 to recharge the resin. Allow the volume to drip through the column by gravity.
  8. Rinse the column with 5 bv dd water
  9. Add 5 bv of Regeneration Buffer and incubate the matrix for 15 min at room temperature.
  10. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each.
  11. Wash with 5 bv 20 mM Tris pH 8.0. Note: The extensive wash steps remove free nickel ions from the column, enhancing performance of the material in subsequent purifications, especially in presence of DTT.
  12. Wash twice with 5 bv dd water each
  13. . Add 10 bv 20% (v/v) ethanol and allow the majority of the volume to drip out of the column. The matrix is now ready to be re-used.

References

1. Li, Y. et al. Self-assembly with orthogonal imposed stimuli to impart structure and confer magnetic function to electrodeposited hydrogel. Applied Materials & Interfaces, Published April 29, 2015
2. Moritzer, Ann-Christin et al. (2018). Structure-based switch of regioselectivity in the flavin-dependent tryptophan 6-halogenase Thal. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294. jbc.RA118.005393. 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005393.
3. Bauer, Westley S et al. “Rapid concentration and elution of malarial antigen histidine-rich protein II using solid phase Zn(II) resin in a simple flow-through pipette tip format.” Biomicrofluidics vol. 11,3 034115. 2 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1063/1.4984788
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